Antibiotics are interesting chemical stimuli that can be used to inhibit specifically essential cell functions and structures. Antibiotic treatment brings a model system, such as bacteria in the exponential growth phase, into imbalance and provokes the activation of a cellular response, usually aimed at damage limitation and/or longer-term adaptation. Proteome analyses are particularly well suited to study this cellular response, as they can be used to identify induced and repressed effector molecules.

Microbial Biotechnology